Sociology 8111 - Seminar in Criminology


This seminar offers a graduate-level foundation of theory and new empirical research in sociological criminology. I follow Edwin Sutherland’s broad definition of the field, though this course emphasizes rulebreaking (see seminars in the sociology of law and sociology of punishment for more on rulemaking and societal reaction). Our focus is definitive statements from important theoretical traditions and critical empirical tests of these theories. We also address critiques of the theories or the research generated by them and attempts to translate theories into policy.

You will read a host of challenging research articles throughout the semester, but I’ve tried to limit the number of required readings to 5-7 per week. The recommended readings are all exemplary or reprresentative work on the topic that could be on your reading lists but won’t be discussed in our weekly meetings unless student interest is very high. I’ve put a lot of my own work on this syllabus –not because it is exemplary but so that I can share reviews and details about the research and publication process that may be helpful to you.


  • The course will help you develop a more nuanced understanding of the dominant theories and conceptual models in criminology. This knowledge is absolutely fundamental to teaching criminology at the college level and developing graduate reading lists and publishing research in the area.
  • We will work through empirical pieces by many of the best sociological criminologists. As you develop your own research, it is useful to see how others have translated propositions into testable hypotheses, devised appropriate methodologies to test them, and presented the results to diverse audiences.
  • The course will stimulate your thinking about questions at the intersection of science and public policy. These include how we produce knowledge, its relevance to lives outside the academy (and penitentiary), and the utility of crime theories and criminologists. Such big-picture considerations may help you to choose the level of abstraction at which you work and the contributions you’d like to make as teachers and researchers. For example, I study crime, law, and deviance because I believe that good science can light the way to a more just and safer world. I’ll encourage you to developing your own goals, mission, and orientation to the field.
  • Finally, a graduate seminar should encourage your professional development as you make the transition from student to independent social scientist. I will share anonymous reviews, letters from funding agencies and journal editors, and other materials that may show you another side of the research and publication process.


  • At least five classic and cutting-edge articles or chapters per week. I’ve listed up to 8 readings per week, but we will “prune” the required reading list based on student interest.
  • Kubrin, Charis E., Thomas D. Stucky, and Marvin D. Krohn.  2009.  Researching Theories of Crime and Delinquency.  New York: Oxford University Press. [strongly recommended for those who have not taken undergraduate criminology classes]

     You will read a host of challenging research articles throughout the semester, but I’ve tried to limit the number of required readings to 5-7 per week. The recommended readings are all exemplary work on the topic that should be on your reading lists but won’t be discussed in our weekly meetings unless student interest is very high. I’ve put a lot of my own work on this syllabus –not because it is exemplary but so that I can share reviews and details about the research and publication process that may be helpful to you. The Kubrin volume offers an excellent introductory overview of this research literature and helps to fill these gaps in coverage.


  • Kornhauser, Ruth R. 1977. Social Sources of Delinquency: An Appraisal of Analytic Models. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press.


  • Each participant will share responsibility for helping to leadat least one of the course meetings. This includes summarizing and distributing a precis covering at least three core readings and a list of open-ended questions about the materials twenty-four hours prior to each class session. The precis is a detailed 2-4 page single-spaced summary of the theory, data, methods, and argument of the readings. Based on the readings, the leader should also help us identify the core concepts, assumptions, and ideas of the tradition, and to help us get a sense of its current empirical status and policy implications – to what degree is it supported with evidence?
  • An original seminar project is required of all students. This may take the form of a research proposal, a synthesis and critical evaluation of a particular line of research, or an empirical paper addressing a substantive problem in criminology. Do not waste your time on a paper that will only be used to meet course requirements. The seminar project should advance your own career and research agenda. I don’t care if it takes you 14 years (as was the case with one seminar student), I want you to publish your seminar papers!
  • Seminars are constructed in interaction. I will provide a brief setup at each meeting and try to provide an environment in which everyone feels comfortable participating, but responsibility for the seminar is borne collectively. This means that you must come to class prepared to discuss the readings (preferably with written comments and at least one question of your own) and to have considered how the course materials will affect your work. A rough guideline: everyone should speak at least once during each course meeting.

    Triggers/Offensive material. You will encounter offensive speech and/or depictions in this course, particularly regarding sexist, racist, or homophobic ideas about crime and deviance. This is especially the case with earlier work (some of the readings are over a century old). In this course, students may also encounter other language, depictions, or attitudes that they find disturbing or offensive. In such cases, it is OK to leave the room or take a break – and to voice your objections with me or with the class more generally.

    This course is not comprehensive. There are multiple definitive statements and myriad critiques and tests for many of these topics. To maximize our coverage in a single semester, I selected work that I consider ideal-typical, representative, or fresh and engaging, with an emphasis on locally grown, organic criminology. Nevertheless, there are vast criminological expanses that we will not touch.





[Introductions, Discussion of Projects]


Brayne, Sarah. 2017. “Big Data Surveillance: The Case of Policing.” American Sociological Review 82: 977–1008.

Light, Michael T., & Ulmer, Jeffrey T. 2016. ‘Explaining the Gaps in White, Black, and Hispanic Violence since 1990: Accounting for Immigration, Incarceration, and Inequality.’ American Sociological Review81(2), 290–315.

Christopher Uggen and Suzy McElrath. 2014. “Six Social Sources of the U.S. Crime Drop.” Pages 3-20 in Crime and the Punished, edited by D. Hartmann and C. Uggen. New York: WW Norton.



 “I haven't committed a crime. What I did was fail to comply with the law.” – David Dinkins



Wilson, James Q. 1975. Thinking about Crime. Chapter 3: “Criminologists.”

Sherman, Lawrence L., Denise C. Gottfredson, Doris L. MacKenzie, John Eck, Peter Reuter, and Shawn D. Bushway. 1998. Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising.” National Institute of Justice Research in Brief. Washington, DC: USGPO.

Abt, Thomas, and Christopher Winship. 2016. What Works in Reducing Community Violence: A Meta-Review and Field Study for the Northern Triangle. USAID.

Drake, Elizabeth K., Steve Aos, and Marna G. Miller. 2009. “Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Crime and Criminal Justice Costs: Implications in Washington State.” Victims and Offenders 4:170-196.

Uggen, Christopher and Michelle Inderbitzin. 2010. “Public Criminologies.” Criminology and Public Policy 9: 725-750 [also skim introduction by Todd Clear and Policy Essay responses by Paul Rock, Kenneth Land, Ian Loader and Richard Sparks, Michael Tonry, and Daniel Mears, pp. 751-805].


Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 1.

* Sampson, Robert J. 2000. “Whither the Sociological Study of Crime?Annual Review of Sociology 26:711-14.

* Loader, Ian and Richard Sparks. 2010. Public Criminology?: Criminological Politics in the Twenty-first Century. Routledge.

* Alex R. Piquero. 2019. “Nothing Fake Here: The Public Criminology Case for Being Smart on Crime by Being Smarter on People.” Justice Evaluation Journal 2:1, 73-92,

* Blueprints for Violence Prevention. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at the University of Colorado.

* Simon, Jonathan. 2007. Governing Through Crime. New York: Oxford University Press.

* Weisburd, David, David Farrington, and Charlotte Gill (eds.). 2016. What Works in Crime Prevention
and Rehabilitation: Lessons From Systematic Reviews. New York: Springer.


3. 2/7 DETERRENCE, MONEY, and CHOICE [Interview with Rita]

“We are often deterred from crime by the disgrace of others.” –  Horace


Sherman, Lawrence W. and Douglas A. Smith. 1992. “Crime, Punishment, and Stake in Conformity: Legal and Informal Control of Domestic Violence.” American Sociological Review 57:680-90.

National Research Council. 2014. “The Crime Prevention Effects of Incarceration.” Pp. 130-156 in The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 

Harris, Christopher J., & Robert E. Worden. 2014. “The Effect of Sanctions on Police Misconduct.” Crime & Delinquency60(8), 1258–1288.

Dugan, Laura and Erica Chenoweth. 2012. “Moving Beyond Deterrence: The Effectiveness of Raising the Expected Utility of Abstaining from Terrorism in Israel.” American Sociological Review 77: 597-624.

Harris, Alexes, Heather Evans and Katherine Beckett. 2010. “Drawing Blood from Stones: Legal Debt and Social Inequality in the Contemporary United States.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 1753-99.



Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 2.

*Becker, Gary. 1968. “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach.” Journal of Political Economy 76:169-217.

* Matsueda, Ross L., Derek A. Kreager, and David Huizinga.  2006. “Deterring Delinquents: A Rational Choice Model of Theft and Violence.” American Sociological Review 71: 95-122.

* Clarke, Ronald V. and Derek B. Cornish. 1985. “Modeling Offenders’ Decisions: A Framework for Research and Policy.” Pp. 147-85 in Crime and Justice, Volume 6, edited by Norval Morris and Michael Tonry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

* Nagin, Daniel S., Robert M. Solow, and Cynthia Lum. 2015. “Deterrence, Criminal Opportunities, and Police.” Criminology, 53: 74-100. 

* Uggen, Christopher and Sarah K.S. Shannon. 2014. "Productive Addicts and Harm Reduction: How Work Reduces Crime - But Not Drug Use." Social Problems 61:105-130.

* Schell‐Busey, N., Simpson, S.S., Rorie, M. and Alper, M. 2016. What Works? A systematic review of corporate crime deterrence.” Criminology & Public Policy 15: 387-416.

* Project HOPE debate in Federal Probation. 2014. Pp. 57-75. Duriez, Stephanie A.; Cullen, Francis T.; Manchak, Sarah M. 2014. “Is Project HOPE Creating a False Sense of Hope: A Case Study in Correctional Popularity.” Kleiman, Mark A. R.; Kilmer, Beau; Fisher, Daniel T. 2014. “Theory and Evidence on the Swift-Certain-Fair Approach to Enforcing Conditions of Community Supervision. Cullen, Francis T.; Manchak, Sarah M.; Duriez, Stephanie A. “Before Adopting Project HOPE: Read the Warning Label: A Rejoinder to Kleiman, Kilmer, and Fisher's Comment.” 

* Harris, Alexes, Heather Evans, and Katherine Beckett. 2011. “Courtesy Stigma and Monetary Sanctions: Toward a Socio-Cultural Theory of Punishment.” American Sociological Review 76: 234-264

* Loughran, T.A., Paternoster, R., Chalfin, A. And Wilson, T. (2016), Can Rational Choice Be Considered A General Theory Of Crime? Evidence from Individual‐Level Panel Data. Criminology 54: 86-112

* Brady, D., Biradavolu, M., & Blankenship, K. M. (2015). Brokers and the Earnings of Female Sex Workers in India. American Sociological Review80(6), 1123–1149.

* Loughran, Thomas A., Holly Nguyen, Alex R. Piquero and Jeffrey Fagan. 2013. “The Returns to Criminal Capital,” American Sociological Review 78:925-948.

* McCarthy, Bill. 2002. “New Economics of Sociological Criminology.” Annual Review of Sociology 28:417-42.

*Nagin, Daniel S. 2013. “Deterrence: A Review of the Evidence by a Criminologist for Economists.” Annual Review of Economics 5:83-105.

*Piliavin, Irving, Rosemary Gartner, Craig Thornton, and Ross L. Matsueda. 1986. “Crime, Deterrence, and Rational Choice.” American Sociological Review 51:101-19.

* Martin, Karin D.,  Bryan L. Sykes, Sarah Shannon, Frank Edwards, Alexes Harris. 2018. “Monetary Sanctions: Legal Financial Obligations in US Systems of Justice.” Annual Review of Criminology 1:471-495



“The real significance of crime is in its being a breach of faith with the community of mankind” – Joseph Conrad


Shaw, Clifford, and Henry H. McKay. 1931. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. Chapters 6-8.

Du Bois, W.E.B. 1899. “The Negro Criminal” (excerpted from The Philadelphia Negro).

Sampson, Robert J., Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science 277:918-24.

Sharkey, Patrick., Gerrard Torrats-Espinosa, and Delaram Takyar. 2017. “Community and the Crime Decline: The Causal Effect of Local Nonprofits on Violent Crime.” American Sociological Review82, 1214–1240.

David S. Kirk and Andrew V. Papachristos. “Cultural Mechanisms and the Persistence of Neighborhood Violence.” 2011. American Journal of Sociology 116: 1190-1233

Lyons, Christopher. 2007. “Community (Dis)Organization and Racially Motivated Crime.” American Journal of Sociology 113:815-63.

Goffman, Alice. 2009. “On the Run: Wanted Men in a Philadelphia Ghetto.” American Sociological Review 74: 339-357.



Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 4.

*Christopher J. Lyons, María B. Vélez, and Wayne A. Santoro. 2013. “Neighborhood Immigration, Violence, and City-Level Immigrant Political Opportunities.” American Sociological Review.

* Light, Michael T., and Julia T. Thomas. 2019. Segregation and Violence Reconsidered: Do Whites Benefit from Residential Segregation? American Sociological Review84(4), 690–725.

* Sampson, Robert J. 2013. “The Place of Context: A Theory and Strategy for Criminology's Hard Problems. Criminology 51:1–31.

* Baumer, Eric, Steven F. Messner, and Richard Rosenfeld. 2004. “Dimensions of Social Capital and Rates of Criminal Homicide.” American Sociological Review 69:882-903.

* Du Bois, W.E.B. (ed.). 1904. Some Notes on Negro Crime, Particularly in Georgia.

* Andrew V. Papachristos, David M. Hureau, and Anthony A. Braga. 2013. “The Corner and the Crew: The Influence of Geography and Social Networks on Gang Violence.” American Sociological Review 78: 417-447

* Joscha Legewie and Merlin Schaeffer. 2016. “Contested Boundaries: Explaining Where Ethnoracial Diversity Provokes Neighborhood Conflict.” American Journal of Sociology 122:125-161.

* Sampson, Robert J. and Steve Raudenbush. 1999. “Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods.” American Journal of Sociology 105: 603-651.

*Pattillo Mary E. 1998. “Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood.” Social Forces 76: 747-74.

*Clear Todd R., Rose Dina R, Waring Elin, and Kristen Scully. 2003. “Coercive Mobility and Crime: A Preliminary Examination Of Concentrated Incarceration And Social Disorganization.” Justice Quarterly 20:33-64.

*Papachristos, Andrew V. 2009. “Murder by Structure: Dominance Relations and The Social Structure of Gang Homicide.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 74-128.

*Bellair, Paul E, and Christopher Browning. 2010. "Contemporary disorganization research: An assessment and further test of the systemic model of neighborhood crime." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.



“If you share your friend's crime, you make it your own” – Latin proverb


Sutherland, Edwin H. 1973. “Development of the Theory.” Pp. 13-29 and “Critique of the Theory” Pp. 30-41 in Edwin H. Sutherland on Analyzing Crime, edited by Karl Schuessler. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sutherland, Edwin H. and Donald R. Cressey. “A Sociological Theory of Criminal Behavior.” Pp. 77-83 in Criminology 10th Edition.

Jones, Nikki. 2004. “It’s not Where you Live, it’s How you Live”: How Young Women Negotiate Conflict and Violence in the Inner City.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 595: 49-62

Matsueda, Ross L. 1992. “Reflected Appraisals, Parental Labeling, and Delinquency: Specifying a Symbolic Interactionist Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 97: 1577-1611.

Warr, Mark. 1998. "Life-Course Transitions and Desistance from Crime." Criminology 36:183-216.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan, Kathryn Edin, Jeffrey R. Kling, and Greg J. Duncan. 2011. “Moving At-Risk Youth Out of High-Risk Neighborhoods: Why Girls Fare Better Than Boys.” American Journal of Sociology 116: 1154-1189.

Smith, Chris M. and Andrew V. Papachristos. 2016. “Trust Thy Crooked Neighbor: Multiplexity in Chicago Organized Crime Networks.” American Sociological Review


Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 6.

* McCarthy, Bill and Teresa Casey. 2008. “Love, Sex, and Crime: Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Offending.” American Sociological Review 73:944-969.

* Cressey, Donald R. and John Irwin. 1962. "Thieves, Convicts, and the Inmate Culture." Social Problems 10:142-55.

* Faris, Robert and Diane Felmlee. 2014. “Casualties of Social Combat: School Networks of Peer
Victimization and their Consequences.” American Sociological Review 79:228-257.

* Michael Massoglia, Glenn Firebaugh, and Cody Warner. 2013. “Racial Variation in the Effect of Incarceration on Neighborhood Attainment.”  American Sociological Review 78: 142-165.

* Papachristos, Andrew V. and Sara Bastomski. 2018. “Connected in Crime: The Enduring Effect of Neighborhood Networks on the Spatial Patterning of Violence.” American Journal of Sociology 124: 517-568.

*Duncan, Greg J., Johanne Boisjoly, Michael Kremer, Dan M. Levy, and Jacque Eccles. 2005. “Peer Effects in Drug Use and Sex among College Students.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33:375-385.

*Kling, Jeffrey R., Jens Ludwig, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2005. “Neighborhood Effects on Crime for Female and Male Youth: Evidence from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 120: 87-130.

*Kreager, Derek. 2007. “Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence.” American Sociological Review 72:705-724.

*Matsueda, Ross L. 1982. “Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Causal Modeling Approach.” American Sociological Review 47:489-504.

* Turanovic, Jillian. J., & Jacob T.N. Young. 2016. “Violent Offending and Victimization in Adolescence: Social Network Mechanisms and Homophily.” Criminology, 54, 487-519.

*Warr, Mark. 2002. Companions in Crime: The Social Aspects of Criminal Conduct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 4-6.



“The common argument that crime is caused by poverty is a kind of slander on the poor.” – HL Mencken


Merton, Robert K. 1938. “Social Structure and Anomie.” American Sociological Review 3:672-82.

Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain TheoryCriminology 40:43-72.

Contreras, Randol. 2014. The Stickup Kids: Race, Drugs, Violence, and the American Dream. Chapter 1. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sugie, Naomi F., & Kristin Turney. 2017. “Beyond Incarceration: Criminal Justice Contact and Mental Health.” American Sociological Review82(4), 719–743.

Haney, Lynne. “Incarcerated Fatherhood: The Entanglements of Child Support Debt and Mass Imprisonment.” American Journal of Sociology 2018 124:1, 1-48.

Burt, Callie Harbin, Ronald L. Simons, and Frederick X. Gibbons. 2012. “Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and ResilienceAmerican Sociological Review 77: 648-67.

Baumer, Eric P., J. W. Andrew Ranson, Ashley N. Arnio, Ann Fulmer, and Shane De Zilwa. 2017.
Illuminating a Dark Side of the American Dream: Assessing the Prevalence and Predictors of Mortgage Fraud across U.S. Counties.” American Journal of Sociology 123: 549-603.


Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 5.

* Zhao, Ruohui and Liqun Cao. 2010. Social Change and Anomie - A Cross-National Study. Social Forces 88:1209-1229.

* Baumer, Eric P., and Kevin T. Wolff. 2014. “Evaluating Contemporary Crime Drops in America,
New York City, and Many Other Places.” Justice Quarterly 31: 5-38.

* Uggen, Christopher and Melissa Thompson. 2003. “The Socioeconomic Determinants of Ill-Gotten Gains: Within-Person Changes in Drug Use and Illegal Earnings.” American Journal of Sociology 109:146-85.

* Rosenfeld, Richard and Robert Fornango. 2007. “The Impact of Economic Conditions on Robbery and Property Crime: The Role of Consumer Sentiment.” Criminology 45: 735-769

* Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 1997. “Political Restraint of the Market and Levels of Criminal Homicide: A Cross-National Application of Institutional-Anomie TheorySocial Forces 75: 1393-1416.

*Blau, Peter, and Judith Blau. 1982. “The Cost of Inequality: Metropolitan Structure and Violent Crime.” American Sociological Review 47:114-29.

*Aseltine, Robert, Susan Gore, and Jennifer Gordon. 2000. “Life Stress, Anger and Anxiety, and Delinquency: An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41:256-275.

*Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

7.  3/6 SOCIAL CONTROL and SELF CONTROL (room change)

“Educate your children to self-control, to the habit of holding passion and prejudice and evil tendencies to an upright and reasoning will, and you have done much to abolish misery from their future lives and crimes to society.” – Daniel Webster


Hirschi, Travis. 1969. Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chapters 1 and 2 (Chapters 7-11 recommended if you are unfamiliar with Hirschi).

Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1990. Crime and Deviance over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social Bonds.” American Sociological Review 55:609-627.

Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Chapters 2, 5, and 6.

Donner, Christopher M., & Wesley G. Jennings. 2014. “Low Self-Control and Police Deviance: Applying Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory to Officer Misconduct.” Police Quarterly 17: 203–225.

Matthew Desmond and Nicol Valdez. 2013. “Unpolicing the Urban Poor: Consequences of Third-Party Policing for Inner-City Women.” American Sociological Review 78: 117-141

Wright, Bradley R. et al. 1999. “Low Self Control, Social Bonds, and Crime: Social Causation, Social Selection, or Both?Criminology 37:479-514.

Moffitt, Terrie E., Louise Arseneault, Daniel Belsky, Nigel Dickson, Robert J. Hancox, Honalee Harrington, Renate Houts, Richie Poulton, Brent W. Roberts, Stephen Ross, Malcolm R. Sears, W. Murray Thomson, and Avshalom Caspi. 2011. “A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108:2693-98.

Caspi, Avshalom, et al. 2002. "Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children". Science 297: 851–854.



Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 7, pp. 167-196.

*Bailey, Amy Kate and Karen A. Snedker. 2011. “Practicing What They Preach? Lynching and Religion in the American South, 1890–1929.” American Journal of Sociology 117:844-887.

*Edin, Kathryn, Timothy J. Nelson, and Rechelle Paranal. 2004. “Fatherhood and Incarceration as Potential Turning Points in the Criminal Careers of Unskilled Men.” Pp. 46-75 in Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration, edited by Mary Pattillo, David Weiman, and Bruce Western. New York: Russell Sage.

*Costello, Barbara, and Paul Vowell. “Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Reanalysis of the Richmond Youth Project Data.” Criminology 37:815-42.

*Heimer, Karen, and Ross L. Matsueda. 1994. “Role-Taking, Role Commitment, and Delinquency: A Theory of Differential Social Control.” American Sociological Review 59:365-390.

*Guo, Guang, Michael Roettger, and Tianji Cai. 2008. “The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths.” American Sociological Review 73:543-568.

*Ronald L. Simons, Man Kit Lei, Steven R. H. Beach, Gene H. Brody, Robert A. Philibert, and Frederick X. Gibbons. “Social Environment, Genes, and Aggression: Evidence Supporting the Differential Susceptibility Perspective.” American Sociological Review December 2011 76: 883-912



“We enact many laws that manufacture criminals, and then a few that punish them.” Allen Tucker


Becker, Howard S. 1963. Outsiders. New York: Free Press. Chapters 1,2, and 8.

Lemert, Edwin. 1967. Human Deviance, Social Problems, and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 3.

Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 2.

Pager, Devah, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. 2009. “Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.” American Sociological Review 74: 777-99.

Brayne, Sarah. 2014. “Surveillance and System Avoidance: Criminal Justice Contact and Institutional Attachment.” American Sociological Review 79: 367-391.

Kohler-Hausmann, Issa. 2013. "Misdemeanor Justice: Control without Conviction." American Journal of Sociology 119: 351-93.

Western, Bruce, Braga Anthony A., Davis Jaclyn, and Sirois Catherine. 2015. "Stress and Hardship after Prison." American Journal of Sociology 120: 1512-547.

Elliott, Sinikka, and Megan Reid. 2019. “Low-Income Black Mothers Parenting Adolescents in the Mass Incarceration Era: The Long Reach of Criminalization.” American Sociological Review84: 197–219.



Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 8.

*Sampson, Robert J. and Stephen W. Raudenbush. 2004. “Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of "Broken Windows".” Social Psychology Quarterly 67:319-342.

*Pager, Devah. 2003. “The Mark of a Criminal Record.” American Journal of Sociology 108: 937-975.

* Flores, Rene D., and Ariela Schachter. 2018. “Who are the “Illegals”? The Social Construction of Illegality in the United States.” American Sociological Review 83:839–868.

* Legewie, Joscha. 2016. "Racial Profiling and Use of Force in Police Stops: How Local Events Trigger Periods of Increased Discrimination." American Journal of Sociology 122: 379-424.

* Bernburg Jon Gunnar, and Marvin D. Krohn. 2003. “Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood.” Criminology 41:1287-1318.

* Uggen, Christopher,  Mike Vuolo, Sarah Lageson, Ebony Ruhland, and Hilary Whitham. 2014. "The Edge of Stigma: An Experimental Audit of the Effects of Low-Level Criminal Records on Employment."Criminology 52:627-54.

* Mobasseri. Sanaz. 2019. "Race, Place, and Crime: How Violent Crime Events Affect Employment Discrimination," American Journal of Sociology 125:63-104.

* Erikson, Kai T. 1962. “Notes on the Sociology of Deviance.” Social Problems 9: 307-14.

*Hagan, John, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. “The Social Reproduction of a Criminal Class in Working-Class London, circa 1950-1980.” American Journal of Sociology 96:265-99.

* Light, Michael T., Ellen Dinsmore, and Michael Massoglia. 2019. "How Do Criminal Courts Respond in Times of Crisis? Evidence from 9/11." American Journal of Sociology 125: 485-533.

*Thompson, Melissa. 2010. “Race, Gender, and the Social Construction of Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System.” Sociological Perspectives 53:99-126.



“There is a heroism in crime as well as in virtue. Vice and infamy have their altars and their religion.”
 – William Hazlitt

Katz, Jack. 1988. Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil. New York: Basic Books. Chapters 1-3.

Maruna, Shadd. 2001. Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Chapters 1, 5, and 6.

Massoglia, Michael and Christopher Uggen. 2010. “Settling Down and Aging Out: Toward an Interactionist Theory of Desistance and the Transition to Adulthood.” American Journal of Sociology 116:543-82.

Giordano, Peggy C, Stephen A. Cernkovich, and Jennifer L. Rudolph. 2002. “Gender, Crime, and Desistance: Toward a Theory of Cognitive Transformation.” American Journal of Sociology 107:990-1064.

Hagan, John and Wenona Rymond-Richmond. 2008. “The Collective Dynamics of Racial Dehumanization and Genocidal Victimization in Darfur.” American Sociological Review 6:875-902.

Dickinson, Timothy, and Richard Wright. 2017. “The Funny Side of Drug Dealing: Risk, Humor, And Narrative Identity.” Criminology 55: 691-720. 



*Hagan, J., Kaiser, J., & Hanson, A. (2016). The Theory of Legal Cynicism and Sunni Insurgent Violence in Post-Invasion Iraq. American Sociological Review81(2), 316–346.

* Collins, Randall. 2012. “C-Escalation and D-Escalation: A Theory of the Time-Dynamics of Conflict.” American Sociological Review 77: 1-20.

* Maruna, Shadd. 2011. “Reentry as a Rite of Passage.” Punishment & Society.



“When you are younger you get blamed for crimes you never committed and when you're older you begin to get credit for virtues you never possessed. It evens itself out.” - George Santayana


Laub, John H., and Robert J. Sampson. 2003. Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Chapters.

Moffitt, Terrie E. 1993. “Adolescent-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy.” Psychological Review 100: 674-701.       

Pettit, Becky and Bruce Western. 2004. “Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration.” American Sociological Review 69:151-69.

Uggen, Christopher. 2000. “Work as a Turning Point in the Life Course of Criminals: A Duration Model of Age, Employment, and Recidivism.” American Sociological Review 65:529-46.

Simi, Pete, Kathleen Blee, Matthew DeMichele, and Steven Windisch. 2017. “Addicted to Hate: Identity Residual among Former White Supremacists.” American Sociological Review82: 1167–1187.

Kirk, David S. 2009. "A Natural Experiment on Residential Change and Recidivism: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina." American Sociological Review 74:484-505.



*Blumstein, Alfred. 1987. “Characterizing Criminal Careers.” Science 237:985-91.

* Piquero, Alex. 2008. “Taking Stock of Developmental Trajectories of Criminal Activity over the Life Course.” Pp. 23-60 in The Long View of Crime: A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research, edited by Akiva M. Liberman. Springer.


*Staff, Jeremy, D. Wayne Osgood, John E. Schulenberg, Jerald G. Bachman, and Emily E. Messersmith. 2011. “Explaining the Relationship between Employment and Juvenile Delinquency.” Criminology.

*Massoglia, Michael, Brianna Remster, and Ryan King. 2011. “Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration Divorce Relationship.” Social Forces.  



"Women are quite able to see to their own defence, as long as the law does not transform them into criminals if they take effective measures to do so.” - Claire Joly, Marie Latourelle, Maryse Martin, & Karen Selick

Chesney-Lind, Meda, and Nicholas Chagnon. 2016. “Criminology, Gender, and Race: A Case Study of Privilege in the AcademyFeminist Criminology 11:311-333.

Daly, Kathleen and Meda M. Chesney-Lind. 1988. “Feminism and Criminology.” Justice Quarterly 5: 497-538.

Miller, Jody and Christopher Mullins. 2006. “The Status of Feminist Theories in Criminology.” Pp. 217-250 in Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory. Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 15, edited by F.T. Cullen, J.P. Wright, and K.R. Blevins. New Brunswick: Transaction.

Panfil, Vanessa R. 2018. “Young and Unafraid: Queer Criminology’s Unbounded Potential.” Palgrave Communications 4:110: 1-5.

Lauritsen, Janet L., Karen Heimer and James P. Lynch. 2009. “Trends in the Gender Gap in Violent Offending: New Evidence from the National Crime Victimization SurveysCriminology 47: 361-399.

Savolainen, Jukka, Samantha Applin, Steven F. Messner, Lorine Hughes, Robert Lytle, and Janne  Kivivuori. 2017. “Does The Gender Gap In Delinquency Vary By Level Of Patriarchy? A Cross‐National Comparative Analysis.” Criminology 55: 726-753.

Potter, Hillary. 2006. “An Argument for Black Feminist Criminology: Understanding African American Women’s Experiences with Intimate Partner Abuse using an Integrated Approach.” Feminist Criminology 1: 106-124.

Steffensmeier, Darrell J., Jennifer Schwartz, and Michael Roche. 2013. “Gender and Twenty-First-Century Corporate Crime: Female Involvement and the Gender Gap in Enron-Era Corporate Frauds.”  American Sociological Review 78: 448-476.


*Hagan, John, A.R. Gillis, and J. Simpson.1985. "Class in the Household: A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Delinquency." American Journal of Sociology 92:788-816.

*Steffensmeier, Darrell and Dana Haynie. 2000. "Gender, Structural Disadvantage, and Urban Crime: Do Macrosocial Variables Also Explain Female Offending Rates?"  Criminology 38:403-438.

* Wodda, Aimee, and Vanessa R. Panfil. 2018. “Insert Sexy Title Here: Moving Toward a Sex-Positive Criminology.” Feminist Criminology13: 583–608.

*Benson, Michael L. and Petter Gottschalk. 2015. “Gender and white-collar crime in Norway: An empirical study of media reports.” International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice 43: 535-552.

* Kruttschnitt, Candace and Kristin Carbone-Lopez. 2006. “Moving beyond the stereotypes: Women‟s subjective accounts of their violent crime.” Criminology 44:321-351.

*Uggen, Christopher and Candace Kruttschnitt. 1998. "Crime in the Breaking: Gender Differences in Desistance." Law and Society Review 32:401-28.

* Choy, O., Raine, A., Venables, P.H. And Farrington, D.P. (2017), Explaining The Gender Gap In Crime: The Role Of Heart Rate. Criminology, 55: 465-487

* Zimmerman, Gregory M., and Steven F. Messner. 2010. “Neighborhood Context and the Gender Gap in Adolescent Violent Crime.” American Sociological Review 75:958-80.

*Burgess-Proctor, Amanda. 2006. “Intersections of race, class, gender, and crime: Future directions for feminist criminology.” Feminist Criminology 1:27-47.





Quinney, Richard. 1977. Class, State, and Crime. New York: David McKay. [Excerpt]

Wacquant, Loic. 2002. “The New 'Peculiar Institution': On the Prison as Surrogate Ghetto.” Theoretical Criminology 4:377-89.

Beckett, Katherine, and Theodore Sasson. 2000. "The War on Crime as Hegemonic Strategy: A Neo-Marxian Theory of the New Punitiveness in U.S. Criminal Justice Policy." Pp. 61-82 in Of Crime and Criminality: The Use of Theory in Everyday Life, edited by Sally Simpson and Robert Agnew. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press.

Ruggiero, Vincenzo and Nigel South. 2013. “Green Criminology and Crimes of the Economy: Theory, Research, and Praxis.” Critical Criminology 21: 359-73.

Muller, Christopher. 2012. “Northward Migration and the Rise of Racial Disparity in American Incarceration, 1880–1950.” American Journal of Sociology 118: 281-326.

Behrens, Angela, Christopher Uggen, and Jeff Manza. 2003. “Ballot Manipulation and the ‘Menace of Negro Domination’: Racial Threat and Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 1850-2002.” American Journal of Sociology 109:559-605. OR Ryan D. King, Michael Massoglia, and Christopher Uggen. 2012. “Employment and Exile: U.S. Criminal Deportations, 1908-2005.American Journal of Sociology 117:1786-1825.

Stuart, Forrest. 2016. “Becoming “Copwise”: Policing, Culture, and the Collateral Consequences of StreetLevel Criminalization.” Law & Society Review 50: 279-313.



Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 9.

* Bernat, I., Whyte, D. 2017. “State-Corporate Crime and the Process of Capital Accumulation: Mapping a Global Regime of Permission from Galicia to Morecambe BayCritical Criminology 25: 71–86.

*Colvin, Mark and John Pauly. 1983. “A Critique of Criminology: Toward an Integrated Structural-Marxist Theory of Delinquency Production.” American Journal of Sociology 89:513-52.

*Messerschmidt, James. 1993. Masculinities and Crime: Critique and Reconceptualization of Theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

* Kramer, Ronald C., Raymond J. Michalowski. 2005. “War, Aggression and State Crime: A Criminological Analysis of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq.” The British Journal of Criminology 45:446–469,

*Katherine Beckett, Kris Nyrop, and Lori Pfingst. 2006. "Race, Drugs, and Policing: Understanding Disparities in Drug Delivery Arrests". Criminology 44: 105–137. 

*Whitt, Hugh P. 2010. The Civilizing Process and Its Discontents: Suicide and Crimes against Persons in France, 1825–1830. American Journal of Sociology 116:130-186.

*Richard C. Fording, Joe Soss, and Sanford F. Schram. 2011. “Race and the Local Politics of Punishment in the New World of Welfare.” American Journal of Sociology 116:1610-57.

*King, Ryan D. and Darren Wheelock. “Group Threat and Social Control: Race, Perceptions of Minorities, and the Desire to Punish.” Social Forces 85:1255-1280.

*LaFree, Gary, Eric P. Baumer, and Robert O’Brien. 2010. “Still Separate and Unequal?: A City-Level Analysis of the Black-White Gap in Homicide Arrests since 1960.” American Sociological Review 75: 75-100

*Michael C. Campbell and Heather Schoenfeld. “The Transformation of America’s Penal Order: A Historicized Political Sociology of Punishment.”  2013. American Journal of Sociology 118: 1375-1423.

*Light, Michael T. and Jeffery T. Ulmer. 2016. “Explaining the Gaps in White, Black and Hispanic
Violence since 1990: Accounting for Immigration, Incarceration, and Inequality.” American
Sociological Review 81: 290-315.


“The worst crime is faking it” – Kurt Cobain


“Tremble, thou wretch, That hast within thee undivulged crimes Unwhipped of justice.” - William Shakespeare


Western, Bruce. 2002. “The Impact of Incarceration on Wage Mobility and Inequality.” American Sociological Review 67:477-98.

Lageson, Sarah E., & Shadd Maruna. 2018. “Digital Degradation: Stigma Management in the Internet Age.” Punishment & Society 20: 113–133.

Massoglia, Michael. 2008. “Incarceration, Health, and Racial Disparities in Health.” Law and Society Review 42:275-306.

Uggen, Christopher and Jeff Manza. 2002. "Democratic Contraction? The Political Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States." American Sociological Review67:777-803.

Wakefield, Sara, and Christopher Wildeman. 2011. “Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems.” Criminology & Public Policy 10:793–817.

Beckett, Katherine and Steve Herbert. 2010. “Penal Boundaries: Banishment and the Expansion of Punishment.” Law and Social Inquiry 35: 1-38.

Harding, David J.,  Jeffrey D. Morenoff, Anh P. Nguyen, and Shawn D. Bushway. 2018.
Imprisonment and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.” American Journal of Sociology 124:49-110.



*Hagan, John. 1994. “Destiny and Drift: Subcultural Preferences, Status Attainments, and the Risks and Rewards of Youth.” American Sociological Review 56:567-82.

*Mauer, Marc, and Meda Chesney-Lind. 2003. Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment. New York: The New Press.

*Beckett, Katherine and Steve Herbert. 2010. Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America. Oxford University Press.

*Schnittker, Jason, Uggen, C., Shannon, S. K.S. And McElrath, S. M. (2015), The Institutional Effects of Incarceration: Spillovers From Criminal Justice to Health Care. Milbank Quarterly 93: 516–560.

*Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage.

*Wakefield, Sara and Christopher Uggen. 2010. "Incarceration and Stratification." Annual Review of Sociology.

* MT Light, M Massoglia, RD King 2014. “Citizenship and Punishment the Salience of National Membership in US Criminal Courts.” http://asr.sagepub.com/content/79/5/825.short

15. 5/4 Final Papers due to Uggen



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